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Grammatical Rules for the Artificial Language

The grammatical rules given here are similar, but not identical, to those used in the ALT. Some
of the suffixes (word endings) and prefixes (additions to the beginning of a word) used in the
actual test differ from those used in the practice test.

During the actual test, you will have access to the rules at all times. Consequently, it is
important that you understand these rules, but it is not necessary that you memorize them. In
fact, memorizing them will hinder rather than help you, since there are differences between the
rules in the version of the Artificial Language that appears here and the one that appears in the
actual test.

You should note that the next part of this section contains a glossary of grammatical terms to
assist you if you are not thoroughly familiar with the meaning of these grammatical terms.

Rule 1: To form the feminine singular of a noun, a pronoun, an adjective, or an article, add the
suffix nef to the masculine singular form. Only nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and articles take
feminine endings in the Artificial Language. When gender is not specified, the masculine form
is used.

Example: If a male eagle is a verlek, then a female eagle is a verleknef.
If an ambitious man is a tosle man, an ambitious woman is a toslenef woman.

Rule 2: To form the plural of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and articles, add the suffix oz to the
correct singular form.

Example: If one male eagle is a verlek, several male eagles are verlekoz.
If an ambitious woman is a toslenef woman, several ambitious women are
toslenefoz women.

Rule 3: Adjectives modifying nouns and pronouns with feminine and/or plural endings must
have endings that agree with the words they modify. In addition, an article (a/an and the)
preceding a noun must also agree with the noun in gender and number.

Example: If an active male eagle is a sojle verlek, an active female eagle is a sojlenef
verleknef and several active female eagles are sojlenefoz verleknefoz.
If this male eagle is volle verlek, these female eagles are vollenefoz verleknefoz.
If the male eagle is wir verlek, the female eagle is wirnef verleknef and the female
eagles are wirnefoz verleknefoz.
If a male eagle is bex verlek, several male eagles are bexoz verlekoz.

Rule 4: The stem of a verb is obtained by omitting the suffix ker from the infinitive form of the
verb.

Example: The stem of the verb tirker is tir.Rule 5: All subjects and their verbs must agree in number; that is, singular subjects require

singular verbs and plural subjects require plural verbs. (See Rules 6 and 7.)

Rule 6: To form the present tense of a verb, add the suffix em to the stem for the singular or the
suffix im to the stem for the plural.
Example: If to bark is nalker then nalem is the present tense for the singular (the dog barks)
and nalim is the present tense for the plural (the dogs bark).

Rule 7: To form the past tense of a verb, first add the suffix zot to the stem, and then add the
suffix em if the verb is singular or the suffix im if it is plural.
Example: If to bark is nalker, then nalzotem is the past tense for the singular (the dog
barked) and nalzotim is the past tense for the plural (the dogs barked).

Rule 8: To form the past participle of a verb, add to the stem of the verb the suffix to. It can be
used to form compound tenses with the verb to have, as a predicate with the verb to be, or as an
adjective. In the last two cases, it takes masculine, feminine, singular and plural forms in
agreement with the noun to which it refers.

An example of use in a compound tense with the verb to have:
If to bark is nalker and to have is tulker, then tulem nalto is the present perfect for the
singular (the dog has barked) and tulim nalto is the present perfect for the plural (the
dogs have barked). Similarly, tulzotem nalto is the past perfect for the singular (the
dog had barked) and tulzotim nalto is the past perfect for the plural (the dogs had
barked).

An example of use as a predicate with the verb to be:

If to adopt is rapker and to be is synker, then a boy was adopted is a ekaplek
synzotem rapto and many girls were adopted is ekapleknefoz synzotim raptonefoz.

An example of use as an adjective:
If to delight is kasker then a delighted boy is a kasto ekaplek and many delighted girls
are kastonefoz ekapleknefoz.

Rule 9: To form a noun from a verb, add the suffix lek to the stem of the verb.
Example: If longker is to write, then a writer is a longlek.

Rule 10: To form an adjective from a noun, substitute the suffix le for the suffix lek.

Example: If pellek is beauty, then a beautiful male eagle is a pelle verlek and a beautiful
female eagle is a pellenef verleknef. (Note the feminine suffix nef.)

Rule 11: To form an adverb from an adjective, add the suffix ki to the masculine form of the
adjective. (Note that adverbs do not change their form to agree in gender or number with the
word they modify.)

Example: If pelle is beautiful, then beautifully is pelleki.

Rule 12: To form the possessive of a noun or pronoun, add the suffix ae to the noun or pronoun
after any plural or feminine suffixes.

Example: If a boglek is a dog, then a dog’s collar is a boglekae collar.
If he is yev, then his book is yevae book.
If she is yevnef, then her book is yevnefae book.

Rule 13: To make a word negative, add the prefix fer to the correct affirmative form.

Example: If an active male eagle is a sojle verlek, an inactive male eagle is a fersojle verlek.
If the dog barks is boglek nalem, then the dog does not bark is the boglek
fernalem.


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